Python
has a few other built-in functions for working with numeric types they are
listed below.

- Absolute value—abs
- Convert two numbers to a common type—coerce(x, y)
- Quotient and remainder—divmod(a, b)
- Power—pow(x, y [, z])
- Round—round(x [, n])

**Absolute value—abs**

The
abs(x) function takes the absolute value of any
integer, long integer, or floating

point
number:

>>>
abs(-5.0)

5.0

>>>
abs(-20L)

20L

When
applied to a complex number, this function returns the

*magnitude*of the number, which is the distance from that point to the origin in the complex plane. Python calculates the magnitude just like the length of a line in two dimensions: for a complex number (a + bj), the magnitude is the square root of a squared plus b squared:
>>> abs(5 -
2j)

5.3851648071345037

**Convert two numbers to a common type—coerce(x, y)**

The
coerce function applies the previously explained
numeric conversion rules to two
numbers and returns them to you as a tuple

>>>
coerce(5,2L)

(5L, 2L)

>>>
coerce(5.5,2L)

(5.5, 2.0)

>>>
coerce(5.5,5 + 2j)

((5.5+0j), (5+2j))

**Quotient and remainder—divmod(a, b)**

This
function performs long division on two numbers and returns the quotient and the
remainder:

>>>
divmod(5,2)

(2, 1)

>>>
divmod(5.5,2)

(2.0, 1.5)

**Power—pow(x, y [, z])**

The
pow function is similar to the power (**)
operator

>>> pow(5,2)

25

>>>
pow(1.2,2.1)

1.4664951016517147

As
usual, Python coerces the two numbers to a common type if needed. If the resulting
type can’t express the correct result

>>>
pow(2.0,-1)

**# The coerced type is a floating point.**
0.5

>>>
pow(2,-1)

**# The coerced type is an integer.**
Traceback (innermost
last):

File “<interactive
input>”, line 1, in ?

ValueError: integer
to the negative power

An
optional third argument to pow specifies
the modulo operation to perform on

the
result:

>>> pow(2,5)

32

>>>
pow(2,5,10)

2

>>> (2 **5)
% 10

2

The
result is the same as using the power and modulo operators, but Python arrives
at the result more efficiently. (Speedy power-and-modulo is useful in some types
of cryptography.)

**Round—round(x [, n])**

This
function rounds a floating point number x to the nearest whole number. Optionally,
you can tell it to round to n digits
after the decimal point:

>>>
round(5.567)

6.0

>>>
round(5.567,2)

5.57

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